Hemorrhoids are a delicate problem that affects about 15% of the adult population of the planet. It is believed that this disease is the reckoning of humanity for upright walking, but judging by the risk groups, it is more likely to pay for a sedentary lifestyle.
Hemorrhoids are considered an occupational disease of drivers, programmers, accountants, and other people who spend a lot of time in a seated position. This is the very disease, about which they say that neither to see it, nor to show others. However, this disease is not as fun as they used to poke fun at it.
So what is hemorrhoids? This is a varicose nodular dilatation of the lower rectum. There are hemorrhoids: internal (submucosal) and external (subcutaneous). In the first case, they are usually not visible, and the main symptom is blood in the feces, toilet paper or in the toilet. External nodes are noticeable as painful swellings or hard bumps around the anal orifice. They may itch, bleed, and cause severe pain during stool and movement.
Today we look at hemorrhoids: photos, symptoms and treatment of this disease by various means, including at home.
The veins in the lower part of the rectum under pressure stretch and inflame, forming hemorrhoids. Causes of hemorrhoids include:
- excessive stress during bowel movements;
- chronic diarrhea or constipation;
- work related to constant weight lifting;
- hypodynamia (sedentary lifestyle or sedentary work);
- pregnancy and childbirth (during attempts, strong pressure on the veins of the lower part of the rectum);
Hemorrhoids develop due to weakness of the muscles of the rectum (aging of the body), as well as a result of a systematic external influence on the anus.
Types of disease
The classification of this disease involves the division into external and internal hemorrhoids. Often it is accompanied by the appearance of knots and cones, which are very painful and can provoke bleeding and difficulty defecation.
- Internal hemorrhoids are distinguished by the fact that the nodes are located in the lower part of the rectum and do not go outside. They are less painful, but often bleed during acts of bowel movement and a few minutes later. During a bowel movement, the internal nodes of the hemorrhoids can fall out and become restrained. This provokes the strongest pain.
- The external type of hemorrhoids is easily determined by the naked eye. Nodes are located around the lower rectal sphincter. This type is the most painful. Knots are often traumatized by tight and rough underwear. External bumps more often than internal nodes are transformed into cancer tumors
Depending on the type of disease, it will directly depend on how and how to treat hemorrhoids.
If a person has hemorrhoids, then the first signs consist in the manifestation of a certain clinical picture:
- discharge of blood from the rectum after stool;
- foreign body sensation in the anus;
- loss of hemorrhoids from the anal canal;
- irritation and pain in the anus.
If you find these signs, you should contact the proctologist, that he diagnosed hemorrhoids, and told how to treat it.
Symptoms of hemorrhoids
In the case of hemorrhoids, the symptoms most often develop gradually. A person may notice such signs as discomfort in the rectum and anus, foreign body sensation, heaviness or itching in the anus, occasional discharge of blood after the toilet (see photo).
In the initial stage of hemorrhoids, these symptoms are observed only with intestinal disorders (constipation or diarrhea), after physical exertion (especially weight lifting), long sitting in a sitting position (long flight, car trip), food excesses (alcohol, spicy food), overheating or hypothermia (bath, hot bath, winter fishing).
Sometimes the disease manifests suddenly. These factors lead to an increased painful hemorrhoid and bleeding. Symptoms of hemorrhoids are rapidly increasing, an acute violation of the outflow of blood from hemorrhoids (thrombosis), inflammation and infringement of hemorrhoids develops.
Hemorrhoids photo: initial stage
So what does this affliction look like? Initial, as well as other stages of hemorrhoids, you can see in the photo.
In medical practice, hemorrhoids are usually divided into stages, there are four stages.
- Stage 1: from time to time blood and bleeding, when emptying, the selection is not a large drop or a few. In the first stage, a hemorrhoid is formed.
- At stage 2, the symptoms of hemorrhoids are more serious, it is like loss of hemorrhoidal evil during defecation and blood discharge. Hemorrhoidal prolapse can be right inside.
- Symptomatic 3 stages - dropped hemorrhoids do not disappear on their own after a bowel movement, and you have to resort to manual correction with the release of blood.
- Manifestations of the 4th stage - hemorrhoids in the form of cones fall out not only when going to the toilet, but also when walking and sitting for a long time, persistently coughing, lifting weights.
Although hemorrhoids and has a fairly pronounced symptoms, however, it can be confused with a tumor of the rectum or colon. And only a doctor can say, hemorrhoids or not, prescribe the necessary treatment. You should not make a diagnosis yourself, because you can make a mistake.
Diagnosis of hemorrhoids is made by finger examination, which allows detecting hemorrhoids in 90 out of 100 cases. Often, patients with hemorrhoids are sent for rectal ultrasound or rectoromanoscopy.
During external examination, attention is paid to the condition of the skin of the perianal area (hyperpigmentation, lichenisation, weeping, etc.), the shape of the anus, its gaping, the presence of cicatricial changes and deformities, the presence of tumors and papilomatosis growths, the presence of fistulous openings, the nature of the lesions, the severity of hemorrhoids, their bleeding, ulceration, pain, the possibility of reposition in the anal canal.
In hemorrhoids, the treatment can be divided into conservative and operative (hemorrhoids are removed). In 2018, conservative agents are more commonly used. Surgical methods are used in the presence of large, falling nodes, the lack of success from conservative treatment, with heavy bleeding.
Selection of the treatment complex depends on the stage of development of the disease: at stage I, specialists usually recommend the use of rectal suppositories or creams, a special diet and moderate exercise. In this case, the basis of treatment are phlebotropic drugs that increase the tone of the veins and normalize blood flow and microcirculation in the cavernous bodies.
Minimally invasive surgeries are usually applied at stage II-III of hemorrhoids, in some cases as a preparatory stage before radical intervention. The most common methods today are: ligation with latex rings, proximal ligation, sclerotherapy, infrared photocoagulation, cryotherapy.
- Ligation with latex rings is a minimally invasive method for the treatment of hemorrhoids using a special ligator unit. The principle of the procedure: a latex ring worn on the hemorrhoid, squeezes the vascular leg of the node, depriving it of food, and within a few days the node itself rejects. After some time, the place of the hemorrhoid replaces the connective tissue. The procedure takes 5-10 minutes, is performed on an outpatient basis, does not require anesthesia.
- Sclerotherapy: this method consists in the introduction of a sclerosing substance (1.5-2 ml) into a hemorrhoid, causing adhesion and flattening of the vessels. The introduction is recommended in no more than 2 hemorrhoids, as the development of pain syndrome is possible. Perhaps repeated sclerotherapy in 12-14 days after the first session.
- Infrared photocoagulation - light guide is brought to the hemorrhoidal stem leg before contact with the mucous membrane. Thermal energy affects the knot leg, causing desolation and adhesion of the vessels feeding the hemorrhoid. The method is most effective in the first stage of chronic hemorrhoids.
- Cryotherapy: the hemorrhoidal site undergoes freezing for 2-3 minutes, after thawing, the site dies and a wound forms at the site of exposure. This effect is most often carried out under local anesthesia.
The last stage of the disease requires radical surgery, the main purpose of which is the removal of hemorrhoids. Such operations include hemorrhoidectomy (surgery, which removes parts of the perianal skin and the mucous membrane of the anus located above the hemorrhoid) and transanal mucosal resection using the Longo method.
It should be remembered that only a doctor can establish a diagnosis and select the appropriate treatment, so timely treatment will help to quickly and accurately cure the disease, and prevent the development of complications.
In the treatment of hemorrhoids rectal suppositories are most popular. They are used in combination with other conservative methods of treatment - ointments, compresses, poultices, sitz baths.
The most effective candles:
- Relief, Relief Ultra, Relief Advance;
- Proktosedil M;
- Sea buckthorn oil (candles);
These are topical preparations, they are effective, quickly absorbed and have the maximum therapeutic effect, removing the symptoms of the disease, as well as relieving the patient's condition.
How to treat hemorrhoids at home
Although, the most reasonable is the medical professional treatment of hemorrhoids, however, people, whether out of modesty, or from lack of time and the impossibility of running over the doctors, are trying to treat hemorrhoids at home on their own, using folk remedies.
- Remove the pain and inflammation in hemorrhoids at home will help candle made from raw potatoes. Candle do the size of a finger, without sharp corners. To introduce a candle for the night, to facilitate the introduction of the potato candle can be smeared with sunflower oil, it will come out with feces during bowel movements or straining, but it can be left for the whole day - it does not interfere with walking.
- Anesthetic and hemostatic effect gives the popular treatment of hemorrhoids with cold or warm baths. To do this, cold (warm) water is poured into the pelvis, and the patient sits in her anus area for 5 minutes. You can do this bath twice a day until complete cessation of bleeding and pain.
- Recipes from onions can be considered a folk remedy for the treatment of hemorrhoids at home. It perfectly kills germs, disinfects and supports the immune system. We will need pottery. 2 liters of milk are poured into a clay pot, and four large onions are dipped. Close the pot and put it in the oven. When the milk boils, the product is ready. Now you need a cover of wood with a hole for steam. The treatment is a steam bath. The session should be repeated every three days. Usually, 3, 4 sessions are enough to cure the beginning hemorrhoids.
- Well proven rectal suppository of propolis. Propolis, pre-crushed, mixed with melted lard. Candles of propolis contribute to the removal of pain, and reduce the size of hemorrhoids.
- Buckthorn bark and nettle leaf in a 1: 1 ratio (1 tbsp each) pour boiling water (0.5 l) and boil on low heat for 10 minutes. Folk remedy for hemorrhoids is indicated for the treatment of hemorrhoidal pains complicated by constipation (with the absence of "bumps"). Reception on 1 2 glasses in 30 min. before meals, three times a day.
It should be understood that folk remedies are needed to alleviate the symptoms, and in order to cure hemorrhoids, you should contact the experts for the appointment of adequate, comprehensive therapy.
Doing useful exercises
Gymnastics exercises are aimed at preventing constipation and strengthening the anal sphincter. For example, by improving the outflow of blood and strengthening the muscle layer of the press, you can normalize the work of the intestine, which prevents constipation:
- “Bicycle” is a rather well-known exercise, which is very much like riding a bicycle, but lying on its back;
- Exercise "scissors" is carried out on his back with his legs raised, which need to be separated and crossed alternately;
- You can also lie on the floor (on your back), put your legs together straight, lift one or the other leg, as far as possible, reaching a right angle in the hip joints. Or bend your knees and spread to the sides, while trying to tear the pelvis off the floor as much as possible.
This is how a person works, that he feels his “fifth point” in any position and is able to direct it, therefore gymnastics to strengthen the anus does not require any adaptations and can be performed in any place, and the surrounding people will hardly notice it.
So, exercises to strengthen the sphincter:
- Stand up, cross your legs and perform rhythmic relaxation and tension of the gluteal muscles;
- Choose the toughest chair, sit down, leaning forward a little (you can easily do it at your desk), try alternately to shorten and relax the sphincter for 10 seconds, trying to push the anus into the rectum. Allow 20 minutes for the exercise, which you can always find if you wish.
Diet and lifestyle
As if patients with hemorrhoids do not like their work, the question can be put unequivocally: to look for another profession. Unfortunately, this is so, because it is the field of activity, which is the cause of the disease, that makes a person change his life abruptly. There is nothing you can do if even the measures taken and continuous treatment do not have the desired effect. However, having changed the profession, the patient feels that it is impossible to forget about the disease, as it continues to remind of itself. So you need to learn to live with him.
Start with a diet that excludes all foods that trigger hemorrhoids. Long-term illnesses, from their own observations, found out what foods cannot be eaten, but it will be useful to remind all the same that they will lead to aggravation:
- Rice porridge and semolina;
- Pasta, potatoes, legumes;
- Sorrel, radish, turnip, white cabbage;
- Cocoa, coffee, strong tea;
- Chocolate, especially bitter;
- Alcohol of all names and brands;
- Ketchup and other hot sauces and seasonings;
- Any spicy, salty, sour dishes;
- Food that promotes bonding of feces in the intestines.
In addition to nutrition, it does not hurt to pay attention to the prevention of physical inactivity and to master a set of physical exercises, which will include special gymnastics against hemorrhoids, which is described just above.
After reviewing what symptoms of hemorrhoids occur in the first place, and how the disease progresses in general, the reader will certainly be interested in what consequences this may all have.Here it should be immediately noted that hemorrhoids are not a deadly disease, however, its complications are dangerous, to some extent, it is:
- Infringement of hemorrhoids in the anus occurs due to inflammatory or reflex spasm of the anal sphincter. Patients complain of unbearable pain and the presence of dropped nodes in the anus. If the patient is not helped in time, thrombosis may occur.
- Bleeding from hemorrhoidal cones, which may be insignificant in the form of droplets or a thin stream, and in rare cases - massive. This complication is almost always associated with the act of defecation. Bleeding with hemorrhoids does not affect the patient’s condition, but can sometimes lead to anemia.
- Loss of hemorrhoids from the anus. This complication is typical for stage 2-3 disease. At the initial stages of hemorrhoid development, the nodes fall out after going to the toilet, but with the progression of the disease, the loss of nodes occurs during minor physical exertion and even sneezing, coughing, and intense laughter. Patients have their own fingers to reset the hemorrhoids in the rectal canal.
- Thrombosis of hemorrhoids is the most severe complication of hemorrhoids, in which there are not only local changes in the anus, but also a violation of the patient’s general condition. The condition requires emergency medical care. When inspecting the anorectal region, hemorrhoids are tense, swollen, enlarged, dark red in color, sometimes with areas of necrosis. Patients may experience general malaise, loss of appetite, fever, nausea, and vomiting.
Which doctor to contact?
If you are worried about discomfort, heaviness, itching and pain in the anus, constipation, or you notice a discharge of blood during or after a bowel movement, you should consult a proctologist. This specialist identifies and treats hemorrhoids.