Cardiac asthma is an acute left ventricular failure, which is caused by stagnation of blood in the pulmonary circulation, as well as international pulmonary edema.
This manifestation is caused by attacks of breathlessness, shortness of breath, and also requires immediate medical attention, since even the preliminary symptoms of cardiac asthma without proper treatment can lead to death.
A patient who has developed a seizure, it is necessary to be hospitalized in the hospital, even if it was possible to stop him before the arrival of the ambulance brigade. The hospital will determine the cause of the attack and treatment.
Self-medication, treatment by folk methods, as well as unauthorized violation of doctor’s prescriptions are unacceptable, as this can lead to repeated attacks, and even death.
What it is: causes of cardiac asthma
Unlike bronchial asthma, which develops due to swelling of the respiratory organs due to an allergen, acute left ventricular failure leads to cardiac asthma. As a result, blood plasma penetrates into the lungs, causing puffiness of these tissues, and thus difficulty in breathing and an attack of suffocation.
The most common causes include the development of the following diseases:
- arrhythmia or ventricular tachycardia;
- cardiomyopathy in various manifestations:
- ischemic disease and other myocardial blood flow disorders;
- infarction and preinfarction state;
- hypertension, and a particular risk occurs with a sudden change in pressure;
- aneurysm department.
Considering that most of these diseases a person acquires with age, it can be said that an unhealthy lifestyle leads to cardiac asthma, namely, low mobility, poor diet, obesity, bad habits and other factors contributing to the development of cardiac pathologies.
What is the difference between cardiac asthma and bronchial?
The difference between bronchial asthma and cardiac asthma is that if in the first case the cause of dyspnea is bronchospasm and swelling of their mucous membranes, in the second case dyspnea is the result of ineffective pumping function of the heart.
For bronchial asthma characterized by prior contact with irritants, lung disease, various allergic diseases. Bronchial asthma is always an independent disease, and cardiac asthma is one of the signs of heart failure.
Heart Asthma Symptoms
In most cases, the symptoms of cardiac asthma develop at night or in those cases when the patient is in a horizontal position.
Severe suffocation is often accompanied by fear of death, and shallow and shallow breathing provokes the occurrence of psychomotor agitation.
In the case of cardiac asthma, the description of the classic symptoms comes down to the following picture:
- patients wake up due to a feeling of lack of air.
- The position of the body is often forced, the patients sit, holding their hands on the edge of the bed.
- pale skin, have a bluish tint.
- breathing is shallow, rapid, with difficulty breathing, dry rales are heard in the lungs.
- blood pressure at the beginning of the attack increases, and then, as a rule, decreases.
- The process is aggravated by the psychological state of a person, who from a sudden feeling of suffocation can panic, which further complicates breathing.
During the daytime, cardiac asthma is usually exacerbated by physical or emotional stress, an increase in blood pressure, or due to an attack of angina. An attack can provoke plentiful food or drink. The attack is preceded by a feeling of tightness in the chest and a change of heartbeat.
The dangerous symptoms of cardiac asthma are:
- the appearance of a patient with distinct gurgling rales, which can be heard even at a considerable distance from him;
- cold sticky sweat;
- The blue of the face (most pronounced in the area of the nasolabial triangle) and limbs.
The appearance of such symptoms indicates the initial stage of pulmonary edema - an extremely life-threatening condition.
Cardiac asthma and pulmonary edema
A prolonged cardiac asthma attack may be complicated by pulmonary edema. At the same time, an increase in pressure in the left atrium, vessels and capillaries is more than 28-30 mm Hg, which causes the transudation of the liquid part of the blood from the vessels to the alveoli (alveolar pulmonary edema). If hypertension of the pulmonary circulation exists for a long time against the background of CHF, then significant morphological changes occur in the capillaries with impaired penetration. In such cases, even with significant hypertension, pulmonary edema does not develop.
With pulmonary edema, the intensity of asphyxiation increases. There is a bubbling breath with a frequency of up to 40 or more per minute, foamy pink sputum begins to stand out from the mouth and nose, the patient is agitated, restless, sitting in bed.
Cyanosis of the mucous membranes is increasing, there is an increased humidity (cold sweat), swelling of the neck veins. With the expanded clinical picture of edema all over the lungs, mixed wet rales are heard, sometimes in combination with dry wheezes that are heard from a distance (a symptom of a “boiling samovar”). In the most severe cases, pulmonary edema occurs with hypotension and other symptoms of shock.
Treatment of cardiac asthma
Cardiac asthma treatment requires inpatient treatment, and it should be started when the first symptoms of an attack occur. The measures are aimed at relieving nervous tension, alleviating the work of the heart, eliminating the excitation of the respiratory center, preventing pulmonary edema.
Emergency care for a patient with cardiac asthma should be aimed at improving the activity of a weakened heart and reducing the excitability of the respiratory center. Treatment should begin with the introduction of 1 ml of 1% solution of morphine or 1 ml of 2% pantopon in order to calm the over-excited respiratory center. The damper of the latter is pipolfen, which is injected under the skin in the amount of 1 ml of a 2.5% solution in addition to the medicines just mentioned.
Following morphine or pantopon for the purpose and under the supervision of a physician, you can use a potent cardiac drug, best of all strophanthin in the amount of 0.00025 (which is half the drug ampoule); instead of strophanthin, you can enter the contents of the ampoule (0.0006) of Korglikon. Any of these drugs is injected into a vein (slowly!) With 10-15 ml of saline or glucose.
During medical care, both at home and in the hospital, the patient’s blood pressure is constantly monitored. It is necessary to be extremely careful with elderly patients. You also need to take into account that the body of many can not take one or other drugs.
Only qualified specialists should treat the disease by correctly selecting drugs and calculating doses to eliminate its signs and effects.
Power and day regimen
The daily regimen of the patient is aimed at preventing recurrent attacks of cardiac asthma.
- organizing the correct daily routine with a good night’s sleep (at least 8 hours) and with rest during the daytime
- moderate exercise helps to improve blood circulation in, as well as normalize the work of the respiratory center.
- recommended walking, exercise bike, swimming at an average pace, breathing exercises daily.
- daily walks in the fresh air improve the functioning of the heart and lungs.
- exclusion of stress, limiting significant physical exertion.
- avoid hypothermia, as catarrhal diseases can cause the development of cardiac asthma.
- stop smoking and alcohol abuse.
- regularly monitor blood pressure levels.
Drug treatment and diet are prescribed by a doctor individually in each case.
Without medical care, the prognosis can be unfavorable, as the probability of cardiac asthma passing into pulmonary edema is high, which can be fatal.
With the successful relief of an attack and regular use of drugs prescribed for the underlying disease in order to reduce the progression of venous congestion in the lungs, the prognosis is favorable.