Pathology such as chronic rhinitis is quite common. In this form of rhinitis, chronically flowing inflammation is observed in the area of the nasal mucosa, and the forms of the disease may be different.
The chronic form of catarrhal rhinitis can be a continuation of poor-quality treatment of acute rhinitis or be a consequence of the introduction of microbes deep into the mucous membrane, which causes hard destructive changes in the membrane, as well as weakening the immune protective function of the body. And in some cases, the patient has an allergic reaction of the mucous membrane.
In this article we will consider all the nuances of chronic rhinitis, its causes, symptoms and topical treatments in adults.
CausesWhat it is? The effectiveness of the treatment of chronic rhinitis depends on whether the root cause of the disease is established correctly. Chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa can be caused by the following predisposing factors:
- diseases of the kidneys, heart and vascular system;
- curvature of the nasal septum;
- occupational hazards;
- smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction;
- dysmenorrhea (painful periods).
Provoke chronic rhinitis:
- bacterial, viral, fungal infection;
- sinus disease;
- nose injury;
- volatile toxic compounds - sulfuric acid vapor, mercury;
- irritant effect of external factors - dust, smoke, cold, dry air.
The most common allergens that cause allergic rhinitis:
- Vegetable - dry foliage, hay, mold and of course the pollen of flowering plants: trees (birch, hazel, aspen, etc.), weeds and meadow grasses (ambrosia, dandelion, wormwood, hedgehog team, timothy, etc.), cereals (rye , corn, etc.).
- Household - house, library and hotel dust, dust mites (present in upholstered furniture, carpets, mattresses, soft toys, etc.), wool and dander of cats, dogs, rabbits, hamsters and other animals; feathers and down pillows and blankets; dry food for fish and animals; cockroaches and rodents, their excrement and scales; mold spores, etc.
- Chemicals - industrial chemicals, latex, rubber and plastic products, washing powders and detergents, cosmetics and perfumery.
Often, chronic rhinitis occurs after acute rhinitis.
Symptoms of chronic rhinitis
To know how to cure chronic rhinitis, you must correctly establish the cause of its occurrence. Otherwise, the treatment will not be effective, and may aggravate the course of the disease. In setting the correct diagnosis, the symptoms of chronic rhinitis will help; it can be used to determine what kind of rhinitis is.
Consider all types of rhinitis in adults:
- Vasomotor rhinitis (rhinitis vasomotorica), depending on the prevalence of a symptom, may be hypersecretory forms, when the main complaint is a significant discharge from the nose; vasodilator (the leading symptom is nasal congestion) and the combined (vasodilatore-hypersecretory) form, when the patient is disturbed by significant nasal discharge and difficulty in nasal breathing. Allergic form may be seasonal or permanent.
- Atrophic chronic. Symptoms: thinning of the nasal mucosa, expansion of the nasal passages, a feeling of dryness in the nose, the discharge of thick mucus, the formation of crusts on the mucous membrane, difficulty in nasal breathing, impaired smell. When removing crusts from the mucous membrane, slight bleeding or sore may occur.
- Chronic catarrhal - is characterized by complaints from patients to persistent mucous nasal discharge and intermittent difficulty in nasal breathing with varying laying of one or the other half of the nose. In anterior rhinoscopy, hyperemia of the mucous membrane with a cyanotic hue, edema, the presence of mucous secretions, especially at the bottom of the nasal cavity, are identified. After lubrication of the nasal mucosa with vasoconstrictor solutions, a significant decrease in the volume of the tissues of the lower and middle nasal conchasis occurs, which indicates the presence of false hypertrophy, i.e. swelling.
- Chronic hypertrophic - is characterized by hyperplasia of the mucous membrane, often with involvement of the periosteum and bone tissue of the nasal conchae and can be of diffuse and limited form. Most often, the growth and thickening of the mucous membrane occurs on the inferior nasal conchas, less often the average in the places of localization of cavernous tissue.
- Allergic - manifested by watery secretions of mucus from the nose with itching, burning, sneezing. Causes of an allergic rhinitis are usually: house dust, house dust mites, tobacco smoke, skin flakes or animal hair, fungal spores, cobwebs, etc. It can be year-round.
- Ozena (ogaepa) is a severe form of an atrophic process in the nose, spreading both on the mucous membrane and on the bony walls of the nasal cavity and nasal conchs, producing a rapidly drying out discharge with a strong, specific, unpleasant odor.
In the absence of adequate treatment, rhinitis can lead to complications such as sinusitis, sinusitis, nasal polyps, inflammation of the middle ear.
How to treat chronic rhinitis
The best way to treat chronic rhinitis is complex. It may include the following methods:
- drug treatment;
- operative intervention;
- the use of folk remedies.
Depending on the form of chronic rhinitis, the symptoms and treatment regimen in adults will differ:
- When exacerbation of chronic rhinitis is widely used magnetic and laser therapy, treatment with homeopathic medicines.
- Atrophic rhinitis drugs are used that can improve the trophism of the mucous membrane.
- Manifestations of allergic rhinitis eliminate with the help of antihistamines, vasoconstrictor and hormonal agents.
- Laser therapy, cryodestruction, radio wave surgery, and other methods are used to treat vasomotor rhinitis.
- In catarrhal rhinitis, local antibacterial treatment is recommended depending on the results of bacteriological seeding of secretions.
- In hypertrophic rhinitis, surgery will be required under local anesthesia.
- Modern medicine uses a bloodless method to remove parts of the mucous membrane - the laser beam.
At the first signs of a runny nose, it is necessary to ensure mental and physical peace, abundant fortified drink, avoid hypothermia and overheating. Clean the nasal passages should be careful to avoid irritation of the inflamed nasal mucosa. Dried crusts should be softened and carefully removed with a cotton swab dipped in water.
It involves the appointment of vasoconstrictor drops, ointments with antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effects, astringent drugs (colargol solution). At elevated temperatures, antipyretic and antiviral drugs are prescribed.
In case of formation of hard crusts, it is possible to use softening sprays and drops, usually oil or salt based. The doctor may prescribe antibiotics depending on the clinical picture.
Treatment of rhinitis in adults is performed using the following physiotherapeutic procedures:
- UV treatment;
- UHF treatment;
- heating with foot baths;
- inhalation of medicinal aerosols using a nebulizer using special solutions of antibiotics, salt, phytotherapeutic and other groups of anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents.
Physical therapy is carried out within 8-12 days on prescription, which depends on the stage of the disease.
Spa balneotherapy (Anapa, Borovoye, Vladivostok resort area, Gelendzhik resort group, Kuryi, Leningrad resort area, Yumatovo), balneotherapy (Golovinka, Kislovodsk, Lazarevskoye, Nalchik, Shusha, Shivanda) and mud treatment (Nalchik, Pyatigorsk, Sadgorod) are shown and mud therapy (Nalchik, Pyatigorsk, Nalchik, Shusha, Shivanda) and mud treatment (Nalchik, Pyatigorsk, Garden).
To date, use the following surgical methods of treatment:
- Ultrasonic disintegration of the concha;
- Radio wave disintegration of the concha;
- Electrocautery (cauterization using an electrode);
- Cryotherapy (cryodestruction of the lower turbinates);
- CO2-laser destruction;
- Conchotomy, or removal of the posterior ends of the inferior nasal concha;
- Chemocaustic, or cauterization of the nasal concha with tri-chloro-acetic acid (effective for catarrhal rhinitis and uncomplicated forms of vasomotor rhinitis).
Surgical treatment of rhinitis is aimed at reducing the size of the nasal concha through various physical factors, thus facilitating the patient's breathing.
The positive effect has the use of folk remedies:
- instillation of drops from aloe or kalanchoe juice;
- local treatment with a cotton swab soaked in a decoction of bay leaf;
- inhalation of boiled potatoes, inhalation of the smell of onion, garlic;
- compresses with warm decoction of bay leaf on the nose and forehead;
- washing the nose with onion, beetroot, carrot juice, decoction of anti-inflammatory herbs (chamomile, calendula);
- warm mustard baths for feet.
In general, the treatment of chronic rhinitis is a long and painstaking process that requires medical supervision. From the patient depends on minimizing risk factors and preventing the next exacerbation.
Disease prevention measures are very important. To prevent rhinitis chronicity, you need:
- treat all ENT pathologies under medical supervision;
- eliminate the effects of allergens, irritants;
- correct anomalies of the structure of the nose;
- rinse the nose regularly with saline solutions;
- stop smoking, alcohol;
- do not abuse drops for the nose;
- to lead a healthy lifestyle, strengthen the immune system and harden;
- do sport.
It is important for workers in hazardous industries to apply measures for personal protection of the nose, air purification, and if they are prone to developing chronic rhinitis with complications, it is better to think about changing the type of activity.