Nail fungus is now very easy to get. A quarter of the population of the globe are those or other signs of mycosis of the nails.
Self-treatment, the use of "folk methods", inattention - all this contributes to the fact that the disease develops actively and goes into a neglected form when the treatment of the fungus is very difficult, and requires a long time.
Sometimes, due to non-effective drugs or lack of proper treatment, a mild form of nail fungus turns into neglected, which is more difficult to cure.
The main reasons for the development of neglected fungi:
- The ineffectiveness of local drugs used. Very often, lacquers and weakly acting creams are applied when treating a fungus in the area of the thumb;
- Discomfort, inflammation, pain, and other symptoms are caused by yeast-like fungi. Other types and types of fungus do not manifest themselves for a very long time. On the neglected form of the disease begin to indicate a change in the color and structure of the nail. Marigolds begin to break, become brittle, and the plate thickens.
Depending on the nature of the changes that occur with the affected nail, i.e. on the basis of symptoms, emit:
- Hypertrophic - is diagnosed in the event that the nail changes its color, loses its natural luster, thickens and changes its usual shape, in some cases collapsing along the edges.
- Onycholytic (atrophic) - manifested as atrophy and rejection of the affected nail segment from the nail bed.
- Normotrophic, which is accompanied by a change in the color of the nail, the appearance on the plate of spots and stripes, but the preservation of its normal brightness and thickness.
How to determine the running stage?
Experts identify several stages of development of fungal nail infections. Consider them in more detail:
- The initial stage is characterized by the absence of visible signs of damage. It is possible to diagnose a disease only in the laboratory. Unfortunately, most patients do not pay enough attention to the early diagnosis of onychomycosis. Namely, in the early stages of the fungus, it can be successfully cured and not started.
- The next stage already has obvious symptoms. While the fungal infection develops, the patient notes a thickening of the nail, its yellowing, a change in structure. A person may also notice the ingrowth of the nail in the surrounding tissue. Fungal damage can spread to all parts of the nail. It has an increased horniness.
- The last stage is classified as running. In this case, there is damage to the entire nail plate. It crumbles, collapses and often completely exfoliates.
Onychomycosis of nails at a late stage should be treated not only locally, but also systemically. For this, antifungal pills are prescribed that have an effect on the entire body. They are quite toxic and have contraindications, and therefore you should not take them yourself. Also, their use should be abandoned to those who have liver problems.
Launched forms of onychomycosis provoke a number of serious complications:
- allergic reactions;
- involvement in the inflammatory process of nerve endings and roots, which causes intense pain;
- the spread of fungi in the bloodstream, and later - in the internal organs;
- the appearance of dermatitis and eczema;
- exacerbation of chronic pathologies;
- bronchial asthma;
- reduced effectiveness of the immune system;
- susceptibility to viral and infectious diseases;
- asthmatic chronic bronchitis.
As you can see, nail fungus in the severe stage affects the functioning of absolutely all organs and systems. This is due to the fact that pathogenic microorganisms release toxins that prevent the normal functioning of the body.
How to treat the neglected form of nail fungus?
Starting treatment of nail fungus in the advanced stage should be aware of the long-term elimination of the disease. Therapy usually lasts for 6 months, and sometimes longer. In order for onicomycosis not to return, it is necessary to strictly observe preventive measures after recovery.
- Monotherapy is the use of a single drug of general or local action, which is impractical with the defeat of more than 50% of the nail plate, as well as with multiple fungal lesions.
- Combined treatment includes procedures for the mechanical removal of the affected areas of the nail, taking antifungal drugs of external and general action, as well as polishing of the affected areas with the subsequent imposition of antifungal drugs.
Therapy of the started form consists of individual complex treatment, which includes antifungal drugs in the form of tablets or capsules, as well as creams, ointments, solutions, sprays, vitamins. If the doctor deems it necessary, he may prescribe a hardware treatment of the affected nails, ozone therapy or laser treatment.
Local remedies for treatment
For the treatment of nail fungus it is necessary to use special creams, drops, ointments and gels. Before applying them 2 times a day, you need to grind the affected nail with a file.
Here is a list of inexpensive but effective drugs:
- Clotrimazole. The drug prevents the synthesis of nucleic acid type, which leads to the destruction of the cell membrane of fungi and their death. Price 70 rub.
- Mikozan The drug effectively destroys the membranes of the fungus, eliminates the enzymes that damage the nail, and creates a protective film on the plate against other pathogens of onychomycosis. The package includes: nail ointment (5 ml in a tube); brush applicator; single-use files - 10 pcs. In this regard, the price is high, from 850 to 1 000 rubles.
- Exoderil. Available in the form of a spray and ointment, has an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory effect. Price 500 rub.
- Lamisil This medical tool is used 1-2 times a day as prescribed by a doctor. Price 550 rub.
Before using some varnishes and ointments, it is necessary to remove the damaged nail plate as well as healthy areas of the nail around the affected area, then the composition is applied and left until completely absorbed (in the case of cream or ointment) or dried (in the case of varnish).
In parallel with the use of external agents prescribed systemic antifungal drugs:
- Fluconazole. Depending on the testimony of the doctor, the clinical situation and the chosen treatment regimen, the initial daily dose of the drug is prescribed from 50 to 400 mg. Price 50 rubles.
- Metronidazole. Effective drug to combat protozoa, which is characterized by antibacterial activity. Price 20 rubles.
- Itraconazole. It is a drug of the widest fungicidal profile: it destroys dermatophytes, yeast and mold. The cure even of advanced forms of the disease amounts to 90% of cases. Once in the nail, the drug is there and remains, without returning to the blood. Price 400 rubles.
- Terbinafin. During the course of treatment with this drug, the active substances accumulating in the skin, nails, and hair provide fungicidal action. The average duration of treatment of onychomycosis is 6-12 months. Price 350 rub.
Treatment of a nail fungus in a neglected form by complete removal of the plate is sometimes the only way, but even without an integrated approach, it may not give the desired effect.
There are several possible plate removal methods:
- Homemade methods. The plate is steamed out and removed with pedicure tools.
Apparatus pedicure. Held in a specialized salon using various devices.
- Surgical removal. At the same time, the nail bed remains open and the person loses his ability to work for several weeks.
If less than half of the nail is affected by the fungus, then a part of the plate can be removed, if more than 50%, one cannot do without complete removal.
This is a relatively new procedure, which, nevertheless, already has a number of positive reviews. The laser can contribute to the removal of the nail, and directly fight against the fungus. No other medicine can compare with a laser in terms of efficiency and speed.
However, this method has contraindications:
- infectious and chronic diseases;
- skin diseases;
- period of pregnancy, lactation;
It is the laser that makes it possible to treat the affected area so thoroughly that sometimes only three to four procedures with an interval of one month are sufficient. The speed of this treatment is due to the fact that under the influence of a laser, bacteria - pathogens and fungal spores die instantly. The average cost of one procedure is 1,000-1,500 rubles.
Hydrogen peroxide treatment
As an additional therapy for the disease, the method of treating the advanced form of nail fungus with hydrogen peroxide, which has the necessary antibacterial properties and helps speed up the healing process, is indispensable.
Before you begin to treat the fungus, it is very important to properly prepare the legs for the upcoming procedure:
- First of all, steam your feet in hot water: the duration does not play a role - it is important to soften the skin and remove as much as possible all the fungal formations from it and from the nail plate without creating injuries. Nails can not be cut, and for cutting it is better to use a disposable blade: to apply it again, especially in a healthy area, is not safe.
- After you have stepped off your feet, take a cotton pad or bandage, folded in several layers, cut the affected nail to shape and moisten well with hydrogen peroxide. Put a moistened disc on the nail and hold it for 40-60 minutes. In order to fix the cotton pad on the nail and prevent evaporation of hydrogen peroxide, you can use food wrap, tape or fingertip. If possible, pour a few drops of peroxide directly into the nail plate. This procedure should be done at least 5-6 times a week until complete removal of the affected nail plate, until a new nail grows.
- To achieve the maximum effect, the course must be extended for 10-14 days, the procedure is carried out daily. Hydrogen peroxide is recommended to be used in a concentration of 3-5%.
Due to the fact that the drug is somewhat aggressive, perhaps a burning sensation, stinging and even pain. When these symptoms appear, the compress should be removed, and the treated area should be washed with clean water, and then a different treatment should be selected.
Popular treatment of nail fungus in its advanced form justifies itself in pregnant women, when the prescription of drugs that can be absorbed into the blood is contraindicated. It should be noted that in these cases only folk remedies are ineffective, and you should not hope to get rid of the fungus.